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Hele Cea-dum Ninon, Mm tha hoi yo wish Melissa 
Woodron, nah tha WuksacM. I'm a graduate student in the Native 
Voices Indigemus Documertary program, studying multi-media and 
theatre representations and education The collaboratixe nature of 
this course has aliened my thoughts and n ork to continue 
developing narratixes about indigenous health wellness. 

VLuVhubtl Ifyo-by Arwva/, Avwja/V&rar^ 
or ju%t B anuria* wi/ll do-. My rooty ayruM of 
Norwegian/, German/ but mostly Iruih i/vv blood/ 
and/ vrv the/ household/. I am/ u C omp a\ r atiA/e/ 
History ofldeafrSerd&rhwe/atlfae/UvV and/ I've/ 
alwayy be^rv deeply connected/ to- people/ or 
cfrmmunitiefr whoye/ voices are/ often/ 
di4t'e#arde>d/. for me/, [ndtcfejvyub CAM^vne/ i% u 
medium/ where/ 1 can/promote/ a/ culture/ that ha% 
beavv yvlenjced/ vn> arv attempt to bhow my 
yyluiat'Lty with their voice/. 

Kate Doughty Hei! The biggest chunk of my 
Northern European heritage is Norwegian, which is why I 
used it for the greeting, but I don't have many cultural ties to 
that country apart from traditional foods, which just goes to 
prove how far food ways transcend through culture. My main 
academic interests center around food— growing it and 
thinking about human relationships with it Essentially, food 
culture is my jam. This course has given me a foundation to 
begin examining decolonizing the diet from a perspective that 
I have authority on (a non-indigenous one), and I hope to 
make colonial/dominant influence on food my main topic of 

Ga'Dcty! My name is Sami Page and I am studying 
Communications and Nutrition. I hope to pursue a career in 
health and wellness to continue spreading my passion for a 
plant based cruelty free lifestyle! After taking part in the 
search for defining what Indigenous Veganism means with 
my fellow authors, I have been inspired to decolonize my 
own life in more ways than one and share my newly 
discovered knowledge about what is means to decolonize 
our lives with friends and family. 

Hallo. My Name is lladine Mortell. I am a fifth 
year senior double majoring in Sociology and 
Communication. I am very passionate about Servant 
Leadership and Student Affairs. This class has shown me 
that all things are interconnected, even when you would 
not expect them to be. I now think very critically and 
holistically about everything I consume. I have also 
learned mindful ways to communicate with people with 
different views about food ways. I am really excited to 
take everything I have learned in this class and practice 
it in my daily life. 

'Ally Oralis: 'Jiaifol f ) was born ami raised m 'tiewport 
'Beach, California, and aw the middle child between two Imp. 'i 
have a very scientific ami fait based outlook on life, so initially'] 
encompassed an outlook on food that coincides with 'hlutritionism; 
Imvtver, this class has taught me that my diet is so much more 

Voices of the Zine 

'than w hat macromolecules '] place in my body. 'It is a social and 
emotional occurrence that makes upwho '] am and should be 
consciously chosen with the wefl-beimj of others and the planet m 
mind. '] am very interested in health and exercise, havincj played 
many different sports all my life. Currentfy, '] reside in Seattle, 
WA, where 1 am a junior on the 1AV Women's Soccer team and 
pursuing a decree in 'Biolocjy: Cellular, "Molecular, and 
Developmental. f ] plan to attend 'Medical School after graduation. 

Osiyo! Dagwado Meghan Jones, and I am a Junior at the University of 
Washington studying Comparative History of Ideas with a focus in Animal Studies, 
and Political Science. I am very focused on studying how non -human animals are 
treated in US food system, and what laws exist to protect them. This class has 
given me an amazing new perspective into veganism and the use of animals in the 
food industry that I had never previously considered, and I am grateful to be able 
to continue to share and hold this knowledge in future courses and the rest of my 
education and life. 

Hey y'all! I'm Stacey Hurwitz, a sophomore 
studying international business in hopes of someday 
running a non-profit organization. I fill my time with 
academics, extracurricular activities, sports, travel, 
spending time with family and friends, and volunteering. 
As someone who has always been intrigued by others 
cultures and food ways, I have been enlightened in 
understanding the importance of relationships, 
responsibility, reciprocity, and respect (4 R's) 
throughout all aspects of my life, and hope that this 
Zine and words of my fellow peers will inspire you to do 
the same. 

■Meg there, my name is fllex Harwell. 1 am pursuing a 
Masters of environmental Horticulture degree in the School of 
Environmental and forest Science. My desire to connect With 
place has led me along this path of discovering and learning 
from Traditional Ecological Knowledges, complementing and 
critiquing Science' as We know it today. This class has 
deepened my understanding of the connection between people 
and our non-human relations (plants and animals) as Well as 
validated my commitment to maintaining the balance and 
treading lightly-but With vigor-on our home. 

Hola, Que Tal?! My name is Claudia Serrato and 
I am a 4 th year PhD candidate in the program of 
sociocultural anthropology. I facilitated this course on 
Decolonizing the Diet: Towards an Indigenous Veganism 
and am determined to continue creating spaces in/out 
of the university for critical learning, expression, and 
cooking towards the healing of the next seven 

Distributed by 
The Feral Space 
A vegan anarchist collective 
www. t h 

Decolonizing The Diet 
Towards an Indigenous Veganism 
...Unlearning to Relearn 

Comparative History of Ideas 480 
University of Washington 

"Turtle Wisdom" 
Cover design by Nadine Mortell 

Table of Contents 

(o) Introduction 2 

(o) Indigenous Veganism 3 

(d Native Chef Teachings 4 

(o) Decolonizing Knowledge to Decolonizing Diets 5 

(o) Decolonial Food Cycle 8 

(o) Food, Power, & Colonization 9 

(o) Decolonize with the Seasons 10 

(o) alter Natives 11 

(o) Revolution in the Borderlands 13 

(o) Reflection 14 

(o) Four Course Menu 15 

(o) Pumpkin Bars Recipe 16 

(o) Indigenous Manifesto & Bill of Sovereign Rights 17 

(o) Local Resources as a Practical Approach .18 

© Voices of the Zine 19 


ml Resources as si Pmctim 

By Melissa Wood row 

Decolonizing the diet and indigenous veganism can be foreign terms for many. I know from personal 
experience at one point they were to me. I'm by no means an expert now, but I feel like there are small, 
approachable and day-by-day actions we can take to participate in these ideals and values. These items ma 
not be new or groundbreaking concepts, yet they are ways to help support a localized movement. We an 
fortunate enough to have so many resources at our fingertips. But, we must first start at home. 

Get to know your local farmers markets, local grocers and community gardens. 

Purchasing and supporting our local economy is one step. It creates an active presence. Steer away from 
commodified goods we see packaged, loaded with sugar and shipped from thousands of miles away 

Create a home or kitchen garden and build your community. 

This doesn't need to be anything big, you could start with one herb or vegetable plant. Next step, cook with 
your family and friends. Create recipes based on food you've grown together. Or, begin a recipe exchange 


local art events. 

Film festivals and art markets are great places to not only enjoy and experience art but to find more ] 
advertisements. RD 2 bios 

Become familiar with local tribes and their movements. 

Many tribes have begun their own food sovereignty movements. There is an urge to protect our land, watei 
and what we call resources. Often times, tribal nations are leading that conversation. 

Above all, do some research! 

Be critical of your sources, check many and check them often. By participating in even just one event listed 
above, especially if it's new to you, you are making a change. Educating yourself will in turn help make 
others aware. 

Below are some links with more great info. These may be a place to start and they may lead you into 
fiirther research. In conclusion, talk about food and health. Get a conversation going and the curiosity 
may begin to educate. 




By Melissa Woodrow 

As an Indigenous community of the Americas, we see the devastation of our Mother Earth, 
our animal relations being taken for granted, our land being abused and our people struggling 10 
equality and sovereign sustainability . It is with this in mind we propose an amendment to the 
colonial Bill of Rights. Instead, with our Indigenous Manifesto we've created the Bill of Sovereign 
Rights. These rights are to be recognized by all governments, all peoples, all societies that the 
indigenous voice has a place and a leadership within the Americas. This is not to say it is restrict 
only to the Americas. We also understand the indigenous struggle is prominent in every country 
and every continent. We must work together to sustain these rights for the better of all. 

Sovereign Right #1: All relations are equal. We understand our animal and plant relations are 
beings on this earth we are not allowed to control or alter their abilities. 

Sovereign Right #2: A collective will be created with elders, youth, community, working 
professionals, scientists, artists, mothers, fathers and children. This collective will act as a 
management force to create equal voices. 

Sovereign Right #3: Our land, water and air are sacred and that is our prime responsibility as a 
community. We will not abuse the land, destroy the trees, pollute our waters and introduce foreign 

Sovereign Right #4: Our stories must be shared. We understand the stories of our ancestors and 
they are pioneers of difficult times. Those stories are not to be ignored or hidden. These are stories 
of injustice, poverty, pride, triumph, sickness, health and struggle. 

Sovereign Right #5: We will empower and educate indigenous languages. We understand the 
diverse regional languages and culture within the indigenous Americas. We will create educational 
curriculum so our children will be taught the language. 

Sovereign Right #6: We will lead a health movement without medications, diets, fads and 
chemicals. Our food is our medicine and it is time we give that power to our Earth. 

Sovereign Right #7: Once a collective is assembled, we believe in the power to amend these rights. 
Keeping to the core of these rights, we understand times will change and adapt and we as a peopl 
must do the same. 



In the age of decolonization 
and decolonizing pedagogy, 
students from the Comparative 
History of Ideas course, 
"Decolonizing the Diet: 
Towards an Indigenous Veganism" 
at the University of Washington 
have created a cyber class zine to share 
with our larger communities the knowledge 
learned, shared, and reflected on from the 
course readings and in class dialogue, interviews 
with Native Chefs, written reflections, and meals prepared and eaten which 
speak to and provide methods towards Decolonizing the Diet, while 
reclaiming and cultivating an Indigenous Veganism. 

With all good intentions and in honor of all our relations this zine introduces 
readers to various intersections between Decolonization, Indigeneity, and 
food through various modes of expression. Readers are introduced to large 
concepts such as the coloniality of gender and culinary imperialism all while 
learning about Indigenous nutrition, Indigenous seasonal and local eating, 
De/colonial and Indigenous food history, Native Chef teachings on modern 
Indigenous cuisine and diet, Indigenous bill of sustainable and sovereign 
food rights, Indigenous veganism, and alterNative food re/sources through 
poetry, short essays, flow charts, and menu/recipe creations. May these next 
pages inspire you as this course inspired us towards decolonizing our taste 

A special thank you to our editors, Stacey Hurwitz and Nadine Mortell for 
their patience, dedication, and exemplary teamwork! 

Dish by Ally Brahs & Sami Page 


"Whotistic 'Balance ♦ ^connect ♦ 

Over the past three moons, we have ! 

1 , , . CmmunituwetrwdowMS* Indwnous 

worked on decolonizing our diet - 

towards an Indigenous Veganism - 

and have worked to comprise a ; 
definition of what that entails. Since \ 
Indigenous Veganism encompasses so 

Episttmolotjies ♦ 'Respect for 'hlonhuman 
'Animals ♦ %uxua([\j 'Beneficial 
'Relationship ♦ Cnielty-f'ee 'Resiliency ♦ 
Seasonality • Sustainabilitxj ( 

many aspects, a simple definition does ' 
not suffice. The words in the 


background were deliberately chosen ; 
to offer a better understanding of the \ 
ideals and principles of what 


Indigenous Veganism embraces. 

Sittings ♦ Cultivation • 'Ancestnd 
Knowledge • ( Ecolofiica( 'Balance ♦ 
'Rciscjiidrtusme ♦ 'Accessible ♦ 
'Pre'lndustrialization ♦ "Everything is 
'Alive" ♦ 'Preserve 
'Food as 'Medicine ♦ Toodas An ♦ 
'Aesthetics ♦ Consensus ♦ Eartfi^ ♦ IifVaticw ♦ Sustain^ Sti^iir^sfifp ♦ JitfUftivfl 
Nutrition ♦ £a?tif Stewardship ♦ 'Jtonmt Meat with Animal ♦ %mwwtim ♦ ffant- 
tfas&i Efet ♦ 51 wuiitionai/^ative Foods ♦ '.Respect ♦ Cruelty-free ♦ fRsfkiimsfe • 
'J^5p?t5ift(iry ♦ 'Redistribution ♦ Spin'ruafin/ ♦ 'Relearnintj ♦ Quesrioniiy ♦ "Multipk 

'Modernities" ♦ DKofofftA^ 
Gritfear?lwafeiwil ♦ Consciousness ♦ 3n&ftt0U$ Kcmotnics ♦ StorxjteSing ♦ 
l^mi£^%nmvim ♦ {Reeeamffan ♦ Rtktiid « !fe-i?i^v«rsi^ny • Invigorate ♦ 
foaf Sovereign/ ♦ ffiree Staffs • (Neaftfi ♦ Seating 


"Indigenous Veganism is a yery powerful act oj 
resistance to co(onia(ism an& it is also a cultural 
spiritual and political demonstration oj resiliency. 

1 also think tlxat what a person brings to 
indigenous Veganism is also what it becomes" 

~C(ief tfephi Craig 
* - , ... (Sunrise 9 ark Hesort) 

By Ally Brahs and Sami Page 

For the crust: 

1/2 -cup walnuts 

1/2 cup pumpkin seeds 

1/2 cup unsweetened shredded coconut 

1/2-teaspoon cinnamon 


2 /3 cup pitted dates, chopped — plus a 
few more if needed 

Squashing the Myth: 
Indigenous Pumpkin Bars 

Makes 9 large or 16 small squares 
Resilient Pleasures 

Creamy pumpkin delight coated with a thin raw 
walnut and date crust 

For the filling: 
11/2 cups pumpkin puree 
1 /3-cup maple syrup or coconut nectar (or to taste) 
1/4 cup melted coconut oil 
1-teaspoon vanilla 
1/4- teaspoon salt 
11/2 teaspoons cinnamon 
3/4-teaspoon cardamom 
3/4- teaspoon ginger 
1/4- teaspoon cloves 

1 /8 teaspoon black pepper 

2 tablespoons coconut flour 


Line an 8"x8" baking pan with parchment paper so you can lift the bars out for 

To prepare the crust, place the walnuts, pumpkin seeds, coconut, cinnamon, and 
salt in a food processor and pulse until finely ground. Add 2/3-cup dates and 
process until well combined and sticky. The mixture may look crumbly, but it 
should hold together when pinched between your fingers. If necessary, add 
more dates to get the right consistency. 

Press the dough firmly and evenly into the baking pan. Place the pan in the 
freezer while you prepare the filling. 

To make the filling, combine the pumpkin puree, 
maple syrup, coconut oil, vanilla, salt, and spices in a food processor. Blend 
until smooth. Add the coconut flour and blend until well combined. Adjust 
sweetener if desired. 

Remove the pan from the freezer and pour the filling on top, spreading it out 
evenly. Cover and refrigerate for at least 6 hours or overnight. 
Lift the bars out of the pan using the parchment paper edges. Use a chef's knife 
to cut the bars, wiping the knife clean between cuts. Serve chilled. 


1 m^S- 


Squashing Colonial Ideals (Soup) 

Warming the Spirit 

A chili-style crock-pot stew incorporating two of the three-sisters, beans and squash 
w/other savory vegetables & herbs from the Pacific Northwest 

(Acorn Squash, black & white beans, oyster mushrooms, fresh vegetable broth, chili) 

Sweet Reclamation (Salad) 
Cultivating Sweet Bodily Memories 
Sweet, fresh mix of seasonal fruits on top of a crisp bed of baby spinach, adorned 
with a lusciously tangy lemon chia seed dressing, topped with deliciously crunchy 

walnuts and berries 
(Baby spinach, carrots, beets, grapes, blueberries, walnuts, lemon, chia) 

Bean Here for Centuries (Salad) 

Honoring Indigenous Nutrition, Land, and Earth Flavors 
Zesty fresh bean salad offering wholesome flavors of diversity 
& Intuitive nutrition 

(Great northern beans, tomatoes, asparagus, fresh basil) 

Planting the Seed for an Ecological Spiral of Reciprocity (Entree) 
Tasting the Seasons 
Delicious zucchini noodles topped with a warm fall pumpkin sage sauce 
(Zucchini, pumpkin, green apples, sage, coconut milk, roasted pumpkin seed oil) 

Squashing the Myth: Indigenous Pumpkin Bars (Dessert) 

Resilient Pleasures 
Creamy pumpkin delight coated with a thin raw walnut and date crust 

(Pumpkin puree & seeds , shredded coconut, dates, walnuts, maple syrup) 

Sister Nettle Tea (Beverage) 
Cleanse & Detox Wisdom from Our Elder Non-Human Plant Relative 
Infusion of nettle with elderflower honey syrup y 

(Dried nettle) 

Nfflttfiw Clad TsasMigs ©mu 

Indigeneity, Decolonization, Embodiment mid Responsibility 

Throughout this autumn season we were honored to receive teachings from 
Native /Indigenous Chefs throughout Turtle Island. We share a few of these 
teachings/wisdom so that they may inspire you as they have inspired us... 

#NativeAmericanCuisine #ModernIndigenousCuisine #DecolonizeTheDiet 

"We have to recognize the RESPONSIBILITY of everything that has been created. Everything has a role and a 
responsibility to one another" -OiefArlie Doxtator 

"We are not dependent on the land, we are PROVIDED BY THE LAND. It is not our 

equal, it is an extension of us. You don 't think of your arm as being equal to your head, 
but rather as a part of your being"— Chef Chrissy Bear 

"I think that besides the labels and diet fads if we can all be open to discussing food in a responsible, respectful way we will 
be closer to not only understanding out nourishing needs but also thinking about the way we eat and the responsibility we 
have to one another but also to the biosphere"- Chef Neftali Duran 

"Becoming vegan connected me to the vibration of life."- Chef Chrissy 

"Participate in your own evolution"— Chef Sean Sherman 

"Lento peroCtvariZO" (slow, but advancing)- Chef Chris Rodriguez 

"Colonization Is affecting everyone. Everyone Is colonized. We are all Indigenous at one time, 
white people have Just been colonized for longer"- Chef Chris Rodriguez 

"It's important to maintain an indigenous perspective in regards to wild plants and food. 
Everything has a purpose. Food, medicine, industrial type use Or all of the above. A lot of the 
times food and medicine were one in the same..."- Chef Sean Sherman 

" Wluit we are doing to food is criminal. Jo re-indigenize means to go back to eating regional and seasonal" - 
Chef Lor etta Barrett Oden 


"It's more of an emotional entity (Modern Aboriginal Cuisine). It's an EMOTIONAL statement... of 
what food can be."— Chef Rich Francis 



Kate Doughty 

The global community- more specifically the non-westem/non-European world-has been pressured for hundreds of years to adopt 
western epistemologies, and with that, customs, traditions, religion, and diets. Since European colonization was occurring in all parts of 
the world, the common mentality has become believing the western way is the right way. Truthfully, the western way is a way, rather 
than the way. There are many problems that have occurred since the colonization of "new worlds" (the problem even lies in that phrase, 
as if indigenous lands and populations didn't exist before Europeans found them)— medical, economic, racial but the fundamental 
change, the trigger for western epistemologies infiltrating global culture, was the change in diet. As a result, the diet that has been 
adopted in North American culture has caused major health issues for Native peoples. However, before the diet can be fixed, society 
needs to stop thinking in a colonial mindset. It may have been 500 years since Columbus arrived, but America is still very much 
colonial. The removal of western epistemology as the predominant way of thought is the first step in achieving a decolonization of the 

In orderto understand the parameters of this argument, some particular terms need to be defined. Various scholars define these 
concepts differently, and boxing the ideas within a single definition is impossible. However, for the context of this discussion, 
decolonization refers to the process of not only returning sovereignty to indigenous peoples in countries where western powers invaded, 
but of removing the thought processes that lead to the mindset of domination over other cultures. Decolonization is more than just the 
act of the colonial power vacating a country; it is the act of removing western epistemologies— ways of creating knowledge and thinking 
within western values-from being dominant. For the purposes of this discussion, to be indigenous one must have residence in or 
ancestral ties to a Native group —in the culture, land and traditional practices. 

Western epistemology is rooted in acquiring material. Life is viewed in terms of commodities, for example, "how much value does this 
land have for me, and how much of it can I use to better my social and economic standing?" This is the view that has been imposed upon 
native peoples who previously had a more mutualistic relationship with the land and with their peers. Yes, it was viewed in terms of 
what can be used, but only to the extent that is absolutely necessary for survival (subsistence) and with the belief that all components of 
the natural world-human, non-human, rock, tree-are related, generously provided by "Madre Tierra" and a "common inheritance" 
Indigenous populations, living in such away is not sustainable. Walter Mignolo, a scholar in decolonization, states, "when living is no 
longer possible, it requires a different epistemic path". The time has come for a new path. 

The previous section alludes to issues within western epistemological thinking. Beginning with agriculture and diet, colonizers slowly 
stripped indigenous peoples of their cultural identity. Languages, stories, songs, and whole cultures have nearly disappeared. And why? 
The people did not comply with Christian morals, and ate the food of barbarians. Accordingto colonizers of that age, "bestial food 


And why? 

When I thought of Decolonization, pre CHID 480 (Decolonizing the Diet cour„ 
I thought of the ways that people were oppressed and resisted colonization 
What I learned is that decolonization is represented through all ways of life, 
Through food ways and resisting structural violence, oppression, and strife 

When Claudia and Chef Neftali enlightened my views by providing a larger worldview, 
I started to question nutritionism, scientific methods, and skewed news 
Realizing that past historical traumas are carried into life today, 
through systems of power and by manipulating foodways 
Lessons gained... liberation can be achieved by decolonizing the diet, freeing our minds, an 
treating Earth and all inhabitants with dignity and honoring the flow of natural lifi 

Economic imperialism and handcuffs placed on Indigenous food ways 
Have ignited a movement... sparked with flame 
Responsibility, Reciprocity, Redistribution, Reclaiming, and Revitalizing foodways 
Is a way of RESISTING the continual colonization that takes place today 

Through lectures, readings, cooking, discussions and interviews, 
[ learned of a covered up past and how important Indigenous food sovereignty and ways of knowing 
through food is a way of being acc ountable and ecologically responsible 
in cultivating a healthy biosphere and in Decolonizing the Diet... all from one single class 

By Stacey Hurwi 

By Kate Doughty 

From the borderland arises a Revitalization, 
From the horrid events that shook the First Nations, 
Colonization lives not in the physical, but the normative, 
Ravishing diets and cultural identities of a people, 
Who have deviated from the path of the ancestors 
Not by the fault of their elders, 

By the force of the colonizers, and their sugar, and their flour, and their 

Goods that take the unnatural and disguise it as natural. 

From the borderland arises a Redefinition, 
Living by Rasquachismo, 

Making food, as art, with what you have and what you need. 

Foods generously provided by Madre Tierra, 

Brought to us on the back of the Turtle, 

Assisted by the Three Sisters, 

And the modern conveniences, winch do not detract 

But Assist 

The Redefinition of the decolonial food way. 

From the borderlands arise new Relationships 
With the Land, 

So altered by the Colonial Framework 
By which the world Operates 
And Depends, 

To the point where Madre Tierra may not be able to provide, 
The work of the Turtle in vain, 
The Three Sisters' help futile, 

On a land so scarred by the conquistador, past and present. 

From the borderlands arise new Relationships, 
A humble harvest from what the land lias to offer, 
Teaching the taste buds to appreciate Bitterness 
As bitterness signifies nutrient Richness, 

Eating the occasional wild beast, who lias lived on this land longer than even 
Elders and Ancestors, 

Appreciating the sacrifice, mourning the death of the family member which so 
Graciously Provides its relatives with sustenance, 

Eating with Respect, Responsibility, Reciprocity, and Relationships with foods. 

From the borderland arises anew, 

A culture that is healing and will not submit 

To the Colonial, 

To the Western, 

From the borderland arises anew 
Indigenous Veganism, and a Food way reborn. 


betokened bestial culture." For the European colonizers, eating foods such as wheat bread, wine, and olive oil that represent holy 
sacrament was the mark of a civilized group. Eating meat became a similar marker. It was not available to the less wealthy in Europe, 

and thus with a seemingly unlimited supply, meat was made available for most people in the colonies to eat more on a regular basis. 
Consequently, if meat was not a staple of the diet for a group of people, it was considered wrong. Indigenous diets that were plant based 
were considered barbaric, and it was thus the mission of a good Christian people to show them the light. The action of colonizing food 
was founded in religious intolerance, stemming from the western thought framework, and was done so with no mercy. Maria Lugones 
stated it perfectly in Toward a Decolonial Feminism: "Judging the colonized from their deficiencies from the point of view of the 
civilizing mission justified enormous cruelty." My interpretation of decolonization follows that there is no way to embrace an 
"indigenous culture" or "indigenous cuisine" if the western culture is still in the prominent position. Equalizing cultural importanc 
promoting the importance of indigenous traditions, and being unafraid to be critical of western thought are necessary for 
decolonization. It is essential for broader society to understand that for indigenous peoples, the "American dream" is more of a 

Foodstuffs like wheat, sugar, dairy and alcohol did not exist in North America pre-colonization. Native peoples ate com, beans, squash, 
other edible plants, berries, and wild animals (depending on the tribe). There was a relationship with the land and with the food itself, 
particularly if the food was an animal. Many Native American tribes believe all life and all of Earth originate from the same entity, and 
thus the sacrifice by the animal being hunted ought to be respected and ought not be in vain-no part wasted. This system was 
ecologically sound, as well as efficient for the tribes who settled permanently and those who were nomadic. For Europeans to come in 
and say these ancient cultures were wrong, and then to force western values upon them was arrogant and, one could argue, barbaric. 
The health effects on native peoples from the introduction of western foods have proved to be problematic for communities forcibly 
removed from their native lands, devoid of cultural knowledge. Diseases such as diabetes and cancer were "either very rare or unheard 
of among the Native populations of North America prior to contact, especially among the precivilized [sic] peoples". In order to reduce 
the frequency of these diseases, pre-colonial and modern food ways must mesh to redefine the indigenous diet. For some, indigenous 
veganism is the answer. 

Indigenous veganism has no distinct definition. There are different meanings for different tribes in different environments. For 
example, tribes along the eastern coast of the United States subsisted on mostly plants, eating deer or other game animals when they 
were available or necessary. On the Great Plains, however, meat was a larger part of the indigenous diet. For the Blackfeet, bison were 
the staple around which much of the culture was centered. All parts of the animal were used, the practice of hunting had been honed to 
a dance, and gender roles were rooted in hunting and preparing bison. For the Blackfeet, bison as an ancestral food would be part of 
their indigenous veganism. In cases like the Blackfeet, allowance to hunt even a few animals that were a part of the ancestral food way 
would revitalize culture, helping native peoples to reclaim their identity. Additionally, a return to eating primarily native plants would 
solve many environmental problems with the current food system. A deviation from the processed food model would benefit local 
ecosystems as well as the health of the planet as a whole, from reduced emissions in the realms of processing, transportation, and the 


worst of it all: mass animal farming. The definition of indigenous veganism may vary, but the benefits as opposed to the colonial food 
model are indisputable. 

All this in effect, it is important to acknowledge that this particular food model should not be the next "fad diet." Vegetarianism a 
veganism have become food crazes rooted in the selfish tendencies of the upper middle economic class. "White veganism" is not 
necessarily the worst thing: some people who advocate for environmental or animal justice have decent intentions. Those who believe it 
will help them stay young and thin; however, diminish the significance of conscious food ways. Indigenous veganism is about reclaiming 
culture; it is a lifestyle for a people with a strong relationship with food, their environment, and all other non-human beings. To market 
it as a "diet" in the western sense would be insensitive and unjust. As a non-indigenous person, having a relationship with animals that 
are consumed, foraging, and practicing agriculture along the lines of those practiced by Natives is a way to be an ally with the 
movement, but claiming to eat an indigenous diet would be inaccurate. My own personal indigenous diet would likely be comprised of a 
lot of potatoes or fermented cod (Lutefisk). Coming from a non -indigenous perspective, I must stress that this model of food holds 
importance for indigenous communities, and while non-indigenous peoples can follow suit, it is not a cultural revitalization for us, it is 

an act of respect and admiration. 

Colonization is more than just relocating from one country to another. It is a mindset centered around the belief that one epistemology 
and one culture is the ultimate: the holy way of life that ought to be practiced by all. For indigenous communities, colonization began 
with stripping one of the most important elements of their culture: food. A return to an "indigenous veganism," is the ultimate goal of 
decolonization, as food was the colonial catalyst from the beginning. However, before that can happen, the "western way is the right 
way" mindset must be eradicated, for the preservation of people and culture. 


Catriona Rueda Esquibel and Luz Calvo, "Decolonize Your Diet: A Manifesto," nineteen sixty-nine: an ethnic studies journal 2(1), (2013): 1-5. 

Earle, Rebecca. Tl\eBody of the Conquistador: Food, Race and the Colonial Experience in Spanish America, 1492-1*00. Cambridge Books Online, 2014. 

La Donna Harris and Jacquiline Wasilewski, "Indigeneity, an Alternative Worldview: Four R's (Relationship, Responsibility, Reciprocity, Redistribution) 
vs. Two P's (Power and Profit), Sharing the Journey Towards Conscious Evolution. Systems Research and Behaiioral Science 21, (2004): 1-15. 

Mohawk, John. "Indians and Sugar: Thoughts on Nutrition, Disease" in Thinking in Indian: A Jolm Mohawk Reader 2010, ed. Jose Barriero (Goldei 
Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 2010), 29-38. 

Maria Lugones, "Toward a Decolonial Feminism," Hypatia 25, (2010): 742-758. 

Walter Mignolo, "Decolonizing Western Epistemology /Building Decolonial Epistemologies," in Decolonizing Epistemologies 2012, ed. Ada Maria Isasi- 
Diaz (New York: Fordham Press, 2012), 20. 

Michael Wise, "Colonial Beef and the Blackfeet Reservation Slaughterhouse, 1879-1895," Radical History Review 110, (2011): 59-77. 



upside dom, or sideways- 

MX W V 1 U t 

Acorn Brownies Directions. 


Mix together the flours, salt, cacao, and baking powder. Set aside. 



Place the softened butter and sugar in a stand up mixer and whip until smooth and creamy. 

2 cups, freshly ground buckwheat 


Add the in eggs and vanilla. Blend well. Scrape down the sides of the bowl. 

1 cup leached + dried acorn flour 


Starting with the diy ingredients, alternately add the yogurt and flours until all is incorporated. 

2 cups yogurt 


Spread the battel - into a parchment lined and greased 9x13 baking dish. 

3/4 cup soft butter (sub coconut oil) 


Bake for 30-40 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean when pierced into the center of the brownie. 

1.5 cups Rapadura or maple sugar 

4 eggs, lightly beaten (sub apple 

sauce + 1 T flax) 

2 teaspoons vanilla powder or 


1 tablespoon baking powder 

1 teaspoon sea salt 

3/4 cup cacao powder 

Carrol Popsicles 


% cup + 1 >A cups fresh-squeezed carrot juice, divided 

1 1/2 tsp. agar-agar 

1/2 cup coconut cream 

2 tsp. honey 


In a small pot, combine 1/4 cup carrot juice and agar over medium heat. Stir until agar is dissolved, approx. 3 minutes. In a large measuring cup or small 

bowl, combine melted gelatin mixture, remaining 1 3/4 cup carrot juice, coconut cream and honey. Whisk veiy well. Evenly divide among a six-pack of 

popsicle molds. Freeze immediately, overnight. 

Meaty Beany Chili 

1 1/2 cups cooked black beans 

1 tablespoon pure maple synip 

1 tablespoon olive oil 

2 tablespoons lime juice 

1 yellow onion, diced medium 

1 green pepper, seeded, diced medium 

Slowcooker directions (can also be made on stovetop + 2 c. extra water). . . 

6 cloves garlic, minced 

2jalapenos, thinly sliced 

Saute the onion, green pepper and jalapeno in the oil wth a big pinch of salt for 5 to 7 minutes, until onion 

3 to 4 tablespoons mild chili powder 

is translucent. Add the garlic, and saute until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add remaining ingredients, cover 

1 tablespoon dried Mexican oregano 

and set to slow cook for at least 8 hours. Lentils should be very tender. Taste for salt and seasoning, and 

2 teaspoons ground cumin 

thin with a little water if necessary. 

1 1/2 teaspoons salt 

Several dashes fresh black pepper 

l/8th teaspoon ground cloves 

2 cups water (plus extra as needed) 

1 cup dried brown lentils 

1 28 oz. can crushed tomatoes 

1 1/2 cups cooked kidney beans 



-turn your pyramid 

U 111 111 U 11 


Standard American Diet 



**The following have been associated with 
these food items when consumed 
excessively and without dairy physical 


(White) Flour 

-Arthritis -Bloating and 
-Cataracts gas 
-Heart disease -Sleepiness 
-Poor memory -Depression 
-Wrinkled skin -Cancer 
-Inflammation -Bad bacteria 
-Rapid weight growth 
gain/obesity -Weakened 
-Diabetes immune system 
-Fatigue/Brain fog -Hair loss 
-High blood 

Did you know you could pretty much blend any grain/nut and 
make it into flour? The only difference is that some "flours" 
might need a little more "glue" (moisture) to hold them 
together. This is also a really great way to enhance the 
flavor/depth of your baking! 
+acom +amaranth 
+maize (com) +quinoa 
+buck wheat +hazelnuts 
+coconut +oats 
+teff +rice 


-Heart disease 
■Kidney disease 
■Chronic inflammation 
-Weight gain 
-High blood pressure 

+llOIiey (3/4 c. = 1 c. sugar) +jllice (applejuice concentrate, orange juice 
+maple Syilip (3/4 c = 1 c concentrate, or white grape juice concentrate. 
VO gmA are wonderful substitutes for sugar and add 

~ interesting flavors as well. Juice cone entrates 
+agave (2/3 c. - 1 c. sugar) are made up of fnictose and glucogei Use Vt c 

+molasses (1 1/3 c. for every c. of white sugar.) 

molasses = 1 c. sugar. -f SUCanat = pure dried sugar cane 

Molasses is more acidic than . . 

sugar, add 14 teaspoon baking J uice 

soda for each cup of molasses 

used. Replace no more than 

half the sugar called for in a 

recipe with molasses.) 

+dates (Dried fruit can serve 

as a sweetener for anything 

from cakes to salad dressings. 

Date sugar is simply dried, 

ground dates) 

Processed Meats 

-Inflammation -Swine Flu 
-Cancer -High 
-Heart disease cholesterol 
-Mental Health -Strokes 
-Mad Cow Disease -Body Odor 

+ Mushrooms! There are many +Beans -so many heirloom varieties to 
different mushroom varieties choose from: 
out there. (Oyster, chanterelle, Amish Nlttle, Anellino Yellow, 
porcini, lobster, shitake, Annie Jackson, Annie's Tasty Green 
matsutaki, puff ball, etc.) Try Pod, Arikara Yellow, Aztec Red 
a variety to experience their Kidney, Beurre de Rocquencourt 
unique flavors and textures! Bis, Black Valentine, Blue Coco 
+Nuts: hazelnut, walnut. Blue Jay, Brown Caseknife 
cashew, pecan, brazil, almond Cameleon, Canadian Wild Goose, 
+ Avocados + Eggplant Canadian Wonder, Carr, Cherokee 


dolloff, duane baptiste potato, 
Early Mohawk, Early Riser, Early 
Yellow Six Weeks, Empress, Fisher, 
Flagg, Fortin's Family, Frijol en 
Seco, Pinto, Hut Pinto, Good Mother 
Stallard, Grandma Nellie's 
Mushroom, etc. 


Colonization by Europeans 

War, enslavenient and 
forced labor, introduced 

Decreased indigenous 
population 8y 70-95% 





food ways 

Remainder suffered 
from Historical Trauma 

that still lingers today 

Direct Violence 

Structural violence, 

"social arrangements 
that put individuals and 
populations in Ms 

Systematic discrimination, 

1 'denied access to the 
resources they need to 
maintain food traditions, 
cuisines, and diet" 

Silent Genocide/ 
Nutridde, Vnocteiy 
culturally appropriate 

Pre-Colonial Indigenous Food Ways 

Allyson Brahs 

Reclaim health & well-being 

Re-assertion of treaty rights 

Food Cycle 

toed on class dismsM, 
paper, andtfiefllog reading 

Reject colonial food ways 

Reclaim traiitiond 
agroecosystems, "restoration 
of trad'rtionol hunting, foraging, 
and farming methods and 

Build relationships/ 
reciprocate with nature 


Diseases of 
Civilization, concer, 
diabetes, obesity ond 
cardiovascular disease 

Co-evolved Food, 

revisit the foods that 
your ancestors co- 
evolved with and 
genetically adopted 
to over generations 

Deep Food, "recovery 
of the deeply-rooted 
ancestral foods and 
food ways of the first 


Domestic/Child Abuse 


Decolonial/Food j 
Justice Movement, 

turn this cycle around, 
reverse the arm 


Food Sovereignty, 

everyone should hove 
the right to hove 
accessto healthy, 
sustainable, culturally 




By Anna Duran 

Necessity, nutritional, comforting, an art form— all are notions commonly associated with food. However the 
associations made with meals and the food we consume are not arbitrary or always natural inclinations. 
Rather, food may serve as a medium for culture; a reflection, a controlling mechanism and at times a silencer of 
culture. More specifically, the United States current mainstream food options reflect the influence of colonial 
food practice and the resulting invisibility of Native or Indigenous foods and connected practices. Essentially, 
food lias been used as a tool for systematically dismantling Indigenous cultures while simultaneously 
privileging Western culture that holds colonial roots— the effects of which are still palpable today. 

The erasure of Indigeneity is still visible in our available food choices today. Foods such as maize have been 
almost totally dismissed and tomatoes and quinoa have been appropriated to other cultures or remain 
commonly unattributed to their Indigenous roots. All choices of restaurants are available; "Italian", "Chinese", 
"Mexican"— yet many cities have no "Native" foods offered. An item of food or a meal may not seem potent in 
their social power until one considers the empirical history that is linked with food. The Greeks once 
considered "wheat, vines and olives" 1 as a symbolic mark of their empire— wherever they were grown, their 
empire held dominion. The conquest of the Americas has been similar in dominance; where cassava, squash 
and diverse varieties of foods once grew- bread, wine and meat have marked the Indigenous lands and have 
simultaneously attempted to silence their cultures. The history of colonization can be traced by tracking 
colonial foods back to their origins. Colonization still persists, and is quietly maintained in our local 
fluorescently lit aisles— let us rupture tins false sense of ambience and restore the recognition, pay the overdue 
respect to the land and its Indigenous peoples. 

1 Massimo Montanari, Food: A Culinary' History. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 73. 


Alex Harwell